Prolapse Treatment & Surgery

Prolapse Treatment & Surgery

The pelvic muscles and tissues support the pelvic organs like a hammock. The pelvic organs include the bladder, uterus and cervix, vagina, and rectum, which is part of the bowel. A prolapse happens when the pelvis muscles and tissues can no longer support these organs because the muscles and tissues are weak or damaged. This causes one or more pelvic organs to drop or press into or out of the vagina.

Pelvic organ prolapse is a type of pelvic floor disorder. The most common pelvic floor disorders are:

Urinary incontinence (leaking of urine)
Fecal incontinence (leaking of stool)
Pelvic organ prolapse (weakening of the muscles and tissues supporting the organs in the pelvis)

Prolapse Causes

Pelvic organ prolapse happens when the muscles and tissues supporting the pelvic organs (the uterus, bladder, or rectum) become weak or loose. This allows one or more of the pelvic organs to drop or press into or out of the vagina.

The most common risk factors are:

Vaginal childbirth, which can stretch and strain the pelvic floor. Multiple vaginal childbirths raise your risk for pelvic organ prolapse later in life. u can prolapse even if you have never had children or if you had a cesarean, or C-section, delivery.

Long-term pressure on your abdomen, including pressure from obesity, chronic coughing, or straining often during bowel movements

Giving birth to a baby weighing more than 8½ pounds

Aging. Pelvic floor disorders are more common in older women. About 37% of women with pelvic floor disorders are 60 to 79 years of age, and about half are 80 or older.1

Hormonal changes during menopause. Loss of the female hormone estrogen during and after menopause can raise your risk for pelvic organ prolapse. Researchers are not sure exactly why this happens.

Family history. Researchers are studying how genetics can play a role in pelvic organ prolapse.


Treatment for pelvic organ prolapse depends on the type of prolapse you have, your symptoms, your age, other health problems, and whether you are sexually active.

Infertility Evaluation/Treatment FAQ

What are the symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse?
How is prolapse diagnosed?
How can I prevent prolapse?